Quite likely the comprehensive exam (aka qualifying exam) is the most feared moment in an academic’s life. It is on my mind right now because it is comprehensive exam season. I am sitting on two comprehensive exams (hereafter comps) this week, advised a 3rd student how to prepare for comps in June and did several more of both activities the last few weeks. I thought I’d share a few thoughts on surviving. I expect a majority of readers have passed their own, but this post should: a) be helpful to those who haven’t, b) provide a place for survivors to share their advice in one place on the web, and c) help those of us who have students and have to help them navigate it.
I’ve served on 3 faculties in the US and Canada, so I think I have a pretty good idea of the range of variation in North America, but to be honest, I have no idea of how things differ in other continents, so keep that caveat in mind. Comps usually have 3 parts (always in the same order):
- Presenting your dissertation research proposal to your committee, answering questions about it, defending and revising until your committee is happy. Some places this is a formal part of the comps and possibly public, some places it is more informal and just your committee. Many places you are supposed to write your research proposal like an NSF grant (15 pages) other places they say 10 pages, but students often go way over these limits. I don’t actually recommend exceeding the limits (but I confess mine was 32 pages).
- Written exam. Normally 3-5 of your committee members will come up with a question that you have to answer in writing (on a wordprocessor, not handwritten). Two places I’ve been each question was given 3-7 days, was open book and you were expected to do literature searches, find new papers and synthesize them (thus spanning 3-4 weeks). My current place you have 4-6 hours on each question (3-5 consecutive days), often closed book, and more of a “what do you know” question. There are pros and cons either way. Mostly I am partial to the longer questions since it really tests the ability to read literature and synthesize. On the other hand, students who are facing closed book knowledge questions have been in my experience more motivated to study and often transition better to the oral exam
- Oral exam – this is the part that really scares everybody. Just you facing 5 professors asking you questions. Most places I’ve been this is required to last at least 2 hours and no more than 3 hours. Some places have external examiners (outside your committee and department) to keep your committee from being too soft, some don’t.
Usually the written questions will center around topics related to your thesis. Technically in a qualifying exam the oral questions are also centered around your thesis, but in a comprehensive exam questions across your whole field (i.e. all of ecology and evolution) are fair game, hence the name. In practice most are strongly centered around your thesis topic with a few basic broader knowledge questions (if you’re an ecologists know at least the basics of evolution; also know the names and contributions of the 10-20 or so most famous people historically in your field).
There is no way around it – comps are one of the most fear inducing experiences you will ever have. I get an adrenaline rush but enjoy job talks and interviews, I was cool as a cucumber on my wedding day, and I was well prepared and fully expecting to do well on my comps. But it was still numbing. I found myself walking into walls culminating in slicing my finger while cooking and going to the emergency room. After this, I started keeping track and large numbers of people I knew had some major incident in the months leading up to comps (driving over their backpack containing their laptop, minor car accident, etc). It is truly a distracted, even-out of body time.
I don’t say this to scare you if you are in the miraculous 1% that isn’t stressed. But just to normalize it for the vast majority who may find this the most stressful thing in your life.So does everybody else. A great deal of this is self-induced. Take a type-A personality who has gotten good grades all their life and tell them they’re about to take an exam that could flunk them out of their life dream, and well, we put pressure on ourselves. This is not productive. And not even really rational. Your committee has already sunk time in you – they want you to succeed! Pretty much everywhere will give you a 2nd chance if you fail. And ask around to see how many people in your department even failed once (varies widely but usually in the 3%-10% range) and failed twice (i.e. flunked out – usually it is down in the 1%-3% range), and most of these people you could have predicted in advance by grades, prior negative feedback from the adviser, etc. Its not particularly likely you’re going to fail!
There is a piece of this fear that many call hazing. And I won’t deny that there is some piece of this in some departments and some individuals. But for every professor who acts this way, there are three who do everything they can to quell it. We all had to pass comps too! And again its a waste of our time to fail somebody. Less appreciated is that comps are not just a way of “keeping up the standards” but are actually designed for the benefit of the student, believe it or not! I say this for two reasons:
- Comps are a chance where you can force a student to learn something. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve had a student where I told them you really should read such and such paper 3 times and they never do. Then comps come around and I tell them to read the paper, and they do. And they thank me for it afterwards. Students who really need to know genetics but stay away, can be forced to learn genetics. And etc. Some part of comps will be forcing you to fill in the holes you’ve avoided filling in.
- You will face these situations in the future. Job talks. Postdoc interview talks. Presenting reports if you work in the government, possibly to hostile audiences. Giving testimony to legislatures or even in courts.
The last is really the main point of comps, and indeed the standard by which comps are judged. If you present as somebody who will go on and do a credible job of sounding knowledgeable and defending your ideas in your defense and job talks, you will pass your comps. This is the real goal.
A brief word on format. Since the 2-2.5 hour goal is nearly universal, this means the schedule looks similar most places. The professors will set up a rotation, usually the furthest from your research first, your adviser last. The first professor is told they have about 20 minutes to ask you questions. When they finish you go to the next professor and on through all four or five people. Many but not all places then take a 5 minute break where you leave the room and they confer. Then usually the professors go around as second time for 5-10 minutes each. Five to eight questions would be typical for one professor in the first round and one to three in the second round.
So on to advice I give students (this is all about orals – writtens vary more in expectations from place to place and are not what most people want advice about anyway):
- Just do it – students always want to postpone their comps. I don’t let them. I insist on 4th or 5th semester. Once you’ve got the classes and reading under your belt, you have nothing to gain (indeed possibly more time to forget) by waiting. Comps hang over everything and make you less efficient in your research. GET THEM OUT OF THE WAY!
- Prepare. This may sound blindingly obvious. But increasingly I am seeing students who haven’t studied adequately. You should study 10-20 hours/week for 1-3 months. And this is after your two years of course work and independent reading beyond coursework (its rather late to start cramming in learning completely new things). I produced a 20 page cheat sheet of everything I thought it was important for me to know. I still refer to it today. If you’ve gotten this far you know how to study – just be sure you do it.
- Do the standard tricks. Namely ask each committee member for their recommended reading list. And hold a mock oral comp (and maybe a mock research proposal defense/discussion). Mock comps work best when they are like the real thing. Not 15 grad students shouting out questions. This honestly is a waste of time. Instead, get 5 students who have already passed and are close to graduating, tell each one which of your committee members they are representing (ideally their adviser). And emulate the format (i.e. 2 hours, 20 minutes each person, etc). You’d be surprised how many professors have a question they ask in every comp. Advanced graduate students know what these are and they know what style each professor has. If you let them have fun pretending to be their advisers grilling you, you will have fewer surprises.
- You will not know the answer to some questions. That’s OK. Although you are at this point more of an expert than you think, there are still five of us. And it is our job to find out the boundaries of your knowledge, which we can’t do if we don’t ask you a few things beyond your boundaries. I had questions that I didn’t know the answer to. Your adviser did. Everyone of your committee members did. You will too. The real key here is how you handle that. Namely don’t panic yourself into a death spiral just because you didn’t know something. It is totally normal. A majority of failed comps I’ve seen occur when a student gets a question they don’t know early on and they lose confidence and start spiraling down. If you don’t know answers to half the questions and you’re two professors in, then panic. Otherwise, hang in there!
- It’s OK to say “I don’t know”. This is a corollary to #4. Part of the comp is making sure you know what you know and what you don’t. Sometimes saying “I don’t know” will be the end (usually for specific factual questions). Other times it will lead to a response of “OK, let’s see if we can think this through” followed by some leading questions to help you. Either way, you’re better off than umming and ahing and making up answers.
- Play to your strengths. Spend a little more time on questions you know a lot about. From the schedule described above, you can tell that most questions should have answers in the 30 seconds to 2-4 minutes range. A five minute uninterrupted monologue is getting too long for most questions and ten is way too long. Sounding meandering and unable to know when you’ve answered the question is bad. But be sure that if you get a question you know the answer to really well, don’t give a one word answer! Draw some connections. Expand! Comps may seem eternally long, but they are finite and you have some choice what you fill those two hours with. I am NOT saying you should watch your watch during your oral – your focus should be answering the question. But you might want to ask somebody to time you a bit if you do a mock comp. Some questions will be interactive. A professor will ask you to do a task (e.g. draw a particular diagram on the board), and then another (show how it changes in scenario x), and then so on that build on each other. If you sense you’re in this scenario (being asked to go to the board is a good clue) don’t drag things out because the real question is five steps in and the professor wants to make sure they have time to get there. In all I’ve given kind of mixed messages here – but be aware how long your answers are and think how well that is serving you and whether they are frustrating the person asking you.
- Its about attitude not knowledge. Not totally – you definitely still need to study. But attitude is a big part of deciding the outcome. Confident is what you are aiming for. Arrogant is a rare problem (and it is usually a nervous tick or lack of preparation when it happens). Timid and unconfident is a much more common problem. As I’ve said, people want to see you comfortable putting your knowledge out there and standing up for your opinions. Don’t keep checking your questioner’s face to see if you’re getting it right or not. If you’re answering (and not going for #5 above), sound like you know you’re right. It is usually blindingly obvious to your committee when you’re losing your nerve and when you’re digging in and plowing ahead even if you’re on the ropes for a moment. You will have moments of both, but try to have more of the latter.
- Get some rest – as I hope I’ve emphasized, there is a significant psychological component to this. Cramming until 2:00AM the night before is the wrong thing. Get your exercise, take care of yourself, go out to a movie the night before and get a good nights sleep. If possible schedule the comp in the morning or afternoon depending on when your body rhythms have you most awake (although increasing scheduling the comp with 5 professors is such a challenge you may have to let this one go).
- Have fun! – This might sound impossible. But the comps that go the best are ones where people go in thinking that they’re looking forward to having an intellectual discourse and treat it as a bit of a game. And two of the last three comps I sat in on the student actually did say it was fun afterwards. And not coincidentally, they both did great.
So if you haven’t yet had your comps yet, they’re not as bad as you think, have some fun, and good luck! If you have passed (or have been advising your students how to pass for 30 years), what advice would you add?