Mathematician W. Timothy Gowers has a great essay called “The two cultures of mathematics“. He identifies two kinds of mathematicians (“theory builders” and “problems solvers”), shows that one kind tends to misunderstand and look down on the other, and explains in concrete detail why mathematics needs both cultures.
Question: are there good essays or books like this for other scholarly fields? Essays or books providing a taxonomy of two (or more) research “cultures” within the field, showing that those cultures often misunderstand/dislike/devalue one another, and arguing that the field actually needs all those cultures in order to reach its full potential?
I’ll also accept nominations of essays and books bemoaning a lack of diversity of research “cultures” within a scholarly field. For instance, Lee Smolin’s The Trouble With Physics, arguing that it’s been bad for fundamental physics to put all of its eggs in the basket of a single theoretical approach (string theory).